1D Forward Simulation for a Susceptible and Chargeable Earth#

Here we use the module SimPEG.electromangetics.frequency_domain_1d to compare predicted frequency domain data for a single sounding when the Earth is purely conductive, conductive and magnetically susceptible, and when it is chargeable. In this tutorial, we focus on:

  • Defining receivers, sources and the survey

  • Defining physical properties when the Earth is chargeable and/or magnetically susceptibility

  • Setting physical property values as constant in the simulation

Our survey geometry consists of a vertical magnetic dipole source located 30 m above the Earth’s surface. The receiver is offset 10 m horizontally from the source.

Import Modules#

import numpy as np
from matplotlib import pyplot as plt

from SimPEG import maps
import SimPEG.electromagnetics.frequency_domain as fdem
from SimPEG.electromagnetics.utils.em1d_utils import ColeCole

plt.rcParams.update({"font.size": 16})

# sphinx_gallery_thumbnail_number = 2

Create Survey#

Here we demonstrate a general way to define the receivers, sources and survey. For this tutorial, the source is a vertical magnetic dipole that will be used to simulate data at a number of frequencies. The receivers measure real and imaginary ppm data.

# Frequencies being observed in Hz
frequencies = np.logspace(0, 8, 41)

# Define a list of receivers. The real and imaginary components are defined
# as separate receivers.
receiver_location = np.array([10.0, 0.0, 10.0])
receiver_orientation = "z"  # "x", "y" or "z"
data_type = "ppm"  # "secondary", "total" or "ppm"

receiver_list = [

# Define a source list. A source must defined for each frequency.
source_location = np.array([0.0, 0.0, 10.0])
source_orientation = "z"  # "x", "y" or "z"
moment = 1.0  # dipole moment

source_list = []
for freq in frequencies:

# Define a 1D FDEM survey
survey = fdem.survey.Survey(source_list)

Defining a Layered Earth Model#

Here, we define the layer thicknesses and physical properties for our 1D simulation. If we have N layers, parameters for the physical properties must be defined for each layer and we must provide N-1 layer thicknesses. The lowest layer is assumed to extend to infinity.

For this tutorial, we predict the response for a halfspace model, however the script has been generalized to work for an arbitrary number of layers. If the Earth is a halfspace, the thicknesses could instead be defined by an empty array, and each physical property value by an array of length 1.

# Layer thicknesses
thicknesses = np.array([20, 40])
n_layer = len(thicknesses) + 1

# In SimPEG, the Cole-Cole model is used to define a frequency-dependent
# electrical conductivity when the Earth is chargeable.
sigma = 1e-2  # infinite conductivity in S/m
eta = 0.8  # intrinsice chargeability [0, 1]
tau = 0.0001  # central time-relaxation constant in seconds
c = 0.8  # phase constant [0, 1]

# Magnetic susceptibility in SI
chi = 0.2

# For each physical property, the parameters must be defined for each layer.
# In this case, we must define all parameters for the Cole-Cole conductivity
# as well as the magnetic susceptibility.
sigma_model = sigma * np.ones(n_layer)
eta_model = eta * np.ones(n_layer)
tau_model = tau * np.ones(n_layer)
c_model = c * np.ones(n_layer)
mu0 = 4 * np.pi * 1e-7
mu_model = mu0 * (1 + chi) * np.ones(n_layer)

# Here, we let the infinite conductivity be the model. As a result, we only
# need to define the mapping for this parameter. All other parameters used
# to define physical properties will be fixed when creating the simulation.
model_mapping = maps.IdentityMap(nP=n_layer)

# Plot complex conductivity at all frequencies
sigma_complex = ColeCole(frequencies, sigma, eta, tau, c)

fig = plt.figure(figsize=(6, 5))
ax = fig.add_axes([0.15, 0.15, 0.8, 0.75])
ax.semilogx(frequencies, sigma * np.ones(len(frequencies)), "b", lw=3)
ax.semilogx(frequencies, np.real(sigma_complex), "r", lw=3)
ax.semilogx(frequencies, np.imag(sigma_complex), "r--", lw=3)
ax.set_xlim(np.min(frequencies), np.max(frequencies))
ax.set_ylim(0.0, 1.1 * sigma)
ax.set_xlabel("Frequency (Hz)")
    [r"$\sigma_{\infty}$", r"$Re[\sigma (\omega)]$", r"$Im[\sigma (\omega)]$"],
    loc="center right",
plot fwd 1 em1dfm dispersive

Define the Forward Simulation and Predict Data#

Here we predict the FDEM sounding for several halfspace models (conductive, susceptible, chargeable). Since the physical properties defining the Earth are different, it requires a separate simulation object be created for each case. Each simulation requires the user define the survey, the layer thicknesses and a mapping.

A universal mapping was created by letting sigma be the model. All other parameters used to define the physical properties are permanently set when defining the simulation.

When using the SimPEG.electromagnetics.frequency_domain_1d module, note that predicted data are organized by source, then by receiver, then by frequency.

# Response for conductive Earth
simulation = fdem.Simulation1DLayered(
    survey=survey, thicknesses=thicknesses, sigmaMap=model_mapping

dpred = simulation.dpred(sigma_model)

# Simulate response for a conductive and susceptible Earth
simulation_susceptible = fdem.Simulation1DLayered(
    survey=survey, thicknesses=thicknesses, sigmaMap=model_mapping, mu=mu_model

dpred_susceptible = simulation_susceptible.dpred(sigma_model)

# Simulate response for a chargeable Earth
simulation_chargeable = fdem.Simulation1DLayered(

dpred_chargeable = simulation_chargeable.dpred(sigma_model)

Plotting Results#

fig = plt.figure(figsize=(7, 7))
ax = fig.add_axes([0.15, 0.1, 0.8, 0.8])
ax.semilogx(frequencies, dpred[0::2], "b-", lw=3)
ax.semilogx(frequencies, dpred[1::2], "b--", lw=3)
ax.semilogx(frequencies, dpred_susceptible[0::2], "r-", lw=3)
ax.semilogx(frequencies, dpred_susceptible[1::2], "r--", lw=3)
ax.semilogx(frequencies, dpred_chargeable[0::2], "g-", lw=3)
ax.semilogx(frequencies, dpred_chargeable[1::2], "g--", lw=3)
ax.set_xlim([frequencies.min(), frequencies.max()])
ax.set_xlabel("Frequency (Hz)")
ax.set_ylabel("|Hs| (A/m)")
ax.set_title("Secondary Magnetic Field")
        "Real (conductive)",
        "Imaginary (conductive)",
        "Real (susceptible)",
        "Imaginary (susceptible)",
        "Real (chargeable)",
        "Imaginary (chargeable)",
Secondary Magnetic Field
<matplotlib.legend.Legend object at 0x7f36cc232ac0>

Total running time of the script: (0 minutes 3.215 seconds)

Estimated memory usage: 8 MB

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