1D Inversion of for a Single Sounding#

Here we use the module SimPEG.electromangetics.frequency_domain_1d to invert frequency domain data and recover a 1D electrical conductivity model. In this tutorial, we focus on the following:

  • How to define sources and receivers from a survey file

  • How to define the survey

  • Sparse 1D inversion of with iteratively re-weighted least-squares

For this tutorial, we will invert 1D frequency domain data for a single sounding. The end product is layered Earth model which explains the data. The survey consisted of a vertical magnetic dipole source located 30 m above the surface. The receiver measured the vertical component of the secondary field at a 10 m offset from the source in ppm.

Import modules#

import os, tarfile
import numpy as np
import matplotlib as mpl
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

from discretize import TensorMesh

import SimPEG.electromagnetics.frequency_domain as fdem
from SimPEG.electromagnetics.utils.em1d_utils import (
from SimPEG.utils import mkvc, plot_1d_layer_model
from SimPEG import (

plt.rcParams.update({"font.size": 16, "lines.linewidth": 2, "lines.markersize": 8})

# sphinx_gallery_thumbnail_number = 2

Download Test Data File#

Here we provide the file path to the data we plan on inverting. The path to the data file is stored as a tar-file on our google cloud bucket: “https://storage.googleapis.com/simpeg/doc-assets/em1dfm.tar.gz

# storage bucket where we have the data
data_source = "https://storage.googleapis.com/simpeg/doc-assets/em1dfm.tar.gz"

# download the data
downloaded_data = utils.download(data_source, overwrite=True)

# unzip the tarfile
tar = tarfile.open(downloaded_data, "r")

# path to the directory containing our data
dir_path = downloaded_data.split(".")[0] + os.path.sep

# files to work with
data_filename = dir_path + "em1dfm_data.txt"
Downloading https://storage.googleapis.com/simpeg/doc-assets/em1dfm.tar.gz
   saved to: /home/vsts/work/1/s/tutorials/07-fdem/em1dfm.tar.gz
Download completed!

Load Data and Plot#

Here we load and plot the 1D sounding data. In this case, we have the secondary field response in ppm for a set of frequencies.

# Load field data
# dobs = np.loadtxt(str(data_filename))
dobs = np.loadtxt(str(data_filename), skiprows=1)

# Define receiver locations and observed data
frequencies = dobs[:, 0]
dobs = mkvc(dobs[:, 1:].T)

fig, ax = plt.subplots(1, 1, figsize=(7, 7))
ax.loglog(frequencies, np.abs(dobs[0::2]), "k-o", lw=3)
ax.loglog(frequencies, np.abs(dobs[1::2]), "k:o", lw=3)
ax.set_xlabel("Frequency (Hz)")
ax.set_ylabel("|Hs/Hp| (ppm)")
ax.set_title("Magnetic Field as a Function of Frequency")
ax.legend(["Real", "Imaginary"])
Magnetic Field as a Function of Frequency
<matplotlib.legend.Legend object at 0x7fdd6666f3d0>

Defining the Survey#

Here we demonstrate a general way to define the receivers, sources and survey. The survey consisted of a vertical magnetic dipole source located 30 m above the surface. The receiver measured the vertical component of the secondary field at a 10 m offset from the source in ppm.

source_location = np.array([0.0, 0.0, 30.0])
moment = 1.0

receiver_location = np.array([10.0, 0.0, 30.0])
receiver_orientation = "z"
data_type = "ppm"

# Receiver list
receiver_list = []

# Define source list
source_list = []
for freq in frequencies:

# Survey
survey = fdem.survey.Survey(source_list)

Assign Uncertainties and Define the Data Object#

Here is where we define the data that are inverted. The data are defined by the survey, the observation values and the uncertainties.

# 5% of the absolute value
uncertainties = 0.05 * np.abs(dobs) * np.ones(np.shape(dobs))

# Define the data object
data_object = data.Data(survey, dobs=dobs, noise_floor=uncertainties)

Defining a 1D Layered Earth (1D Tensor Mesh)#

Here, we define the layer thicknesses for our 1D simulation. To do this, we use the TensorMesh class.

# Layer thicknesses
inv_thicknesses = np.logspace(0, 1.5, 25)

# Define a mesh for plotting and regularization.
mesh = TensorMesh([(np.r_[inv_thicknesses, inv_thicknesses[-1]])], "0")

Define a Starting and/or Reference Model and the Mapping#

Here, we create starting and/or reference models for the inversion as well as the mapping from the model space to the active cells. Starting and reference models can be a constant background value or contain a-priori structures. Here, the starting model is log(0.1) S/m.

Define log-conductivity values for each layer since our model is the log-conductivity. Don’t make the values 0! Otherwise the gradient for the 1st iteration is zero and the inversion will not converge.

# Define model. A resistivity (Ohm meters) or conductivity (S/m) for each layer.
starting_model = np.log(0.1 * np.ones(mesh.nC))

# Define mapping from model to active cells.
model_mapping = maps.ExpMap()

Define the Physics using a Simulation Object#

simulation = fdem.Simulation1DLayered(
    survey=survey, thicknesses=inv_thicknesses, sigmaMap=model_mapping

Define Inverse Problem#

The inverse problem is defined by 3 things:

  1. Data Misfit: a measure of how well our recovered model explains the field data

  2. Regularization: constraints placed on the recovered model and a priori information

  3. Optimization: the numerical approach used to solve the inverse problem

# Define the data misfit. Here the data misfit is the L2 norm of the weighted
# residual between the observed data and the data predicted for a given model.
# The weighting is defined by the reciprocal of the uncertainties.
dmis = data_misfit.L2DataMisfit(simulation=simulation, data=data_object)

# Define the regularization (model objective function)
reg_map = maps.IdentityMap(nP=mesh.nC)
reg = regularization.Sparse(mesh, mapping=reg_map, alpha_s=0.025, alpha_x=1.0)

# reference model
reg.mref = starting_model

# Define sparse and blocky norms p, q
reg.norms = [0, 0]

# Define how the optimization problem is solved. Here we will use an inexact
# Gauss-Newton approach that employs the conjugate gradient solver.
opt = optimization.ProjectedGNCG(maxIter=50, maxIterLS=20, maxIterCG=30, tolCG=1e-3)

# Define the inverse problem
inv_prob = inverse_problem.BaseInvProblem(dmis, reg, opt)

Define Inversion Directives#

Here we define any directiveas that are carried out during the inversion. This includes the cooling schedule for the trade-off parameter (beta), stopping criteria for the inversion and saving inversion results at each iteration.

# Defining a starting value for the trade-off parameter (beta) between the data
# misfit and the regularization.
starting_beta = directives.BetaEstimate_ByEig(beta0_ratio=1e1)

# Update the preconditionner
update_Jacobi = directives.UpdatePreconditioner()

# Options for outputting recovered models and predicted data for each beta.
save_iteration = directives.SaveOutputEveryIteration(save_txt=False)

# Directive for the IRLS
update_IRLS = directives.Update_IRLS(
    max_irls_iterations=30, minGNiter=1, coolEpsFact=1.5, update_beta=True

# Updating the preconditionner if it is model dependent.
update_jacobi = directives.UpdatePreconditioner()

# Add sensitivity weights
sensitivity_weights = directives.UpdateSensitivityWeights()

# The directives are defined as a list.
directives_list = [

Running the Inversion#

To define the inversion object, we need to define the inversion problem and the set of directives. We can then run the inversion.

# Here we combine the inverse problem and the set of directives
inv = inversion.BaseInversion(inv_prob, directives_list)

# Run the inversion
recovered_model = inv.run(starting_model)
                        SimPEG.InvProblem is setting bfgsH0 to the inverse of the eval2Deriv.
                        ***Done using same Solver, and solver_opts as the Simulation1DLayered problem***

model has any nan: 0
=============================== Projected GNCG ===============================
  #     beta     phi_d     phi_m       f      |proj(x-g)-x|  LS    Comment
x0 has any nan: 0
   0  3.15e+02  1.40e+02  0.00e+00  1.40e+02    3.95e+01      0
   1  1.58e+02  2.44e+01  1.13e-01  4.22e+01    1.76e+01      0
   2  7.88e+01  7.94e+00  1.48e-01  1.96e+01    7.25e+00      0
Reached starting chifact with l2-norm regularization: Start IRLS steps...
irls_threshold 2.42689865225539
   3  3.94e+01  3.46e+00  1.70e-01  1.02e+01    5.06e+00      0
   4  9.79e+01  1.68e+00  1.54e-01  1.68e+01    6.33e+00      0
   5  1.73e+02  3.25e+00  1.28e-01  2.54e+01    8.16e+00      0
   6  1.41e+02  5.69e+00  1.00e-01  1.98e+01    3.06e+00      0
   7  1.41e+02  5.03e+00  8.46e-02  1.70e+01    3.69e+00      0
   8  1.41e+02  4.56e+00  7.25e-02  1.48e+01    3.79e+00      0
   9  2.27e+02  4.08e+00  6.36e-02  1.85e+01    1.05e+01      0
  10  2.27e+02  4.76e+00  5.57e-02  1.74e+01    5.42e+00      0
  11  2.27e+02  4.50e+00  4.86e-02  1.56e+01    5.17e+00      0
  12  3.61e+02  4.26e+00  4.07e-02  1.90e+01    1.34e+01      0   Skip BFGS
  13  3.61e+02  4.95e+00  3.05e-02  1.60e+01    6.73e+00      0
  14  3.61e+02  4.52e+00  2.22e-02  1.25e+01    7.08e+00      0
  15  5.68e+02  4.36e+00  1.54e-02  1.31e+01    1.53e+01      0   Skip BFGS
  16  5.68e+02  4.76e+00  1.02e-02  1.05e+01    8.06e+00      0
  17  5.68e+02  4.64e+00  6.88e-03  8.54e+00    9.59e+00      0
  18  8.86e+02  4.46e+00  4.58e-03  8.52e+00    1.64e+01      0
  19  1.38e+03  4.49e+00  2.98e-03  8.59e+00    1.53e+01      0
  20  1.38e+03  4.51e+00  1.97e-03  7.22e+00    6.19e+00      0   Skip BFGS
  21  2.17e+03  4.36e+00  1.32e-03  7.23e+00    1.55e+01      0
  22  3.43e+03  4.32e+00  8.82e-04  7.35e+00    1.54e+01      0   Skip BFGS
  23  5.41e+03  4.32e+00  5.88e-04  7.50e+00    1.53e+01      0   Skip BFGS
  24  8.53e+03  4.34e+00  3.91e-04  7.67e+00    1.52e+01      0
  25  1.34e+04  4.36e+00  2.60e-04  7.85e+00    1.51e+01      0
  26  2.11e+04  4.39e+00  1.73e-04  8.04e+00    1.50e+01      0
  27  3.30e+04  4.42e+00  1.15e-04  8.22e+00    1.49e+01      0
  28  5.15e+04  4.45e+00  7.67e-05  8.40e+00    1.48e+01      0
  29  8.03e+04  4.48e+00  5.10e-05  8.57e+00    1.48e+01      0
  30  8.03e+04  4.51e+00  3.40e-05  7.23e+00    5.95e+00      0
  31  1.26e+05  4.36e+00  2.29e-05  7.25e+00    1.56e+01      0
  32  1.99e+05  4.32e+00  1.53e-05  7.37e+00    1.53e+01      0   Skip BFGS
Reach maximum number of IRLS cycles: 30
------------------------- STOP! -------------------------
1 : |fc-fOld| = 0.0000e+00 <= tolF*(1+|f0|) = 1.4148e+01
1 : |xc-x_last| = 4.7725e-03 <= tolX*(1+|x0|) = 1.2741e+00
0 : |proj(x-g)-x|    = 1.5289e+01 <= tolG          = 1.0000e-01
0 : |proj(x-g)-x|    = 1.5289e+01 <= 1e3*eps       = 1.0000e-02
0 : maxIter   =      50    <= iter          =     33
------------------------- DONE! -------------------------

Plotting Results#

# Load the true model and layer thicknesses
true_model = np.array([0.1, 1.0, 0.1])
true_layers = np.r_[20.0, 40.0, 160.0]

# Extract Least-Squares model
l2_model = inv_prob.l2model

# Plot true model and recovered model
fig = plt.figure(figsize=(8, 9))
x_min = np.min(
    np.r_[model_mapping * recovered_model, model_mapping * l2_model, true_model]
x_max = np.max(
    np.r_[model_mapping * recovered_model, model_mapping * l2_model, true_model]

ax1 = fig.add_axes([0.2, 0.15, 0.7, 0.7])
plot_1d_layer_model(true_layers, true_model, ax=ax1, show_layers=False, color="k")
    mesh.h[0], model_mapping * l2_model, ax=ax1, show_layers=False, color="b"
    mesh.h[0], model_mapping * recovered_model, ax=ax1, show_layers=False, color="r"
ax1.set_xlim(0.01, 10)
ax1.set_title("True and Recovered Models")
ax1.legend(["True Model", "L2-Model", "Sparse Model"])

# Plot predicted and observed data
dpred_l2 = simulation.dpred(l2_model)
dpred_final = simulation.dpred(recovered_model)

fig = plt.figure(figsize=(11, 6))
ax1 = fig.add_axes([0.2, 0.1, 0.6, 0.8])
ax1.loglog(frequencies, np.abs(dobs[0::2]), "k-o")
ax1.loglog(frequencies, np.abs(dobs[1::2]), "k:o")
ax1.loglog(frequencies, np.abs(dpred_l2[0::2]), "b-o")
ax1.loglog(frequencies, np.abs(dpred_l2[1::2]), "b:o")
ax1.loglog(frequencies, np.abs(dpred_final[0::2]), "r-o")
ax1.loglog(frequencies, np.abs(dpred_final[1::2]), "r:o")
ax1.set_xlabel("Frequencies (Hz)")
ax1.set_ylabel("|Hs/Hp| (ppm)")
ax1.set_title("Predicted and Observed Data")
        "Observed (real)",
        "Observed (imag)",
        "L2-Model (real)",
        "L2-Model (imag)",
        "Sparse (real)",
        "Sparse (imag)",
    loc="upper left",
  • True and Recovered Models
  • Predicted and Observed Data

Total running time of the script: ( 0 minutes 19.236 seconds)

Estimated memory usage: 18 MB

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